The Language of Chemistry|Class 9

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The Language of Chemistry
The Language of Chemistry

Definition:

TermDefinition
SymbolSymbol is the shorthand abbreviation of the full name of an element.
ValencyValency is the number of hydrogen atoms or the number of chlorine atoms or double the number of oxygen atoms with which one atom of that element combines. OR, The number of electrons lost, gained or shared with one atom of the element in order to acquire the stable configuration of the nearest inert gas element.

List of Cations or basic radicals:

NameSymbolCharge
HydrogenH++1
LithiumLi++1
SodiumNa++1
PotassiumK++1
Cuprous or Copper(I)Cu++1
SilverAg++1
Aurous or Gold(I)Au++1
Mercurous or mercury (I)Hg2+2+1
AmmoniumNH4++1
PhosphoniumPH4++1
MagnesiumMg2++2
CalciumCa2++2
BariumBa2++2
Cupric or Copper(II)Cu2++2
Mercuric or Mercury (II)Hg2++2
Ferrous or Iron (II)Fe2++2
Cobaltous or Cobalt(II)Co2++2
NickelNi2++2
Manganous or Manganese(II)Mn2++2
CadmiumCd2++2
ZincZn2++2
Plumbous or Lead(II)Pb2++2
Stannous or Tin(II)Sn2++2
Ferric or Iron(III)Fe3++3
Manganic or Manganese(III)Mn3++3
AluminiumAl3++3
Auric or Gold(III)Au3++3
Antimonous or Antimony(III)Sb3++3
Arsenous or Arsenic(III)As3++3
ChromiumCr3++3
Cobaltic or Cobalt(III)Co3++3
Platinic or Platinum(IV)Pt4++4
Plumbic or Lead(IV)Pb4++4
Stannic or Tin(IV)Sn4++4
Arsenic(V)As5++5
Antimonic or Antimony(V)Sb5++5

List of variable valencies:

ElementNameSymbolCharge
CopperCuprous or Copper(I)Cu++1
 Cupric or Copper(II)Cu2++2
GoldAurous or Gold(I)Au++1
 Auric or Gold(III)Au3++3
MercuryMercurous or mercury (I)Hg2+2+1
 Mercuric or Mercury (II)Hg2++2
CobaltCobaltous or Cobalt(II)Co2++2
 Cobaltic or Cobalt(III)Co3++3
LeadPlumbous or Lead(II)Pb2++2
 Plumbic or Lead(IV)Pb4++4
ArsenicArsenous or Arsenic(III)As3++3
 Arsenic(V)As5++5
AntimonyAntimonous or Antimony(III)Sb3++3
 Antimonic or Antimony(V)Sb5++5
TinStannous or Tin(II)Sn2++2
 Stannic or Tin(IV)Sn4++4
IronFerrous or Iron (II)Fe2++2
 Ferric or Iron(III)Fe3++3
ManganeseManganous or Manganese(II)Mn2++2
 Manganic or Manganese(III)Mn3++3

List of anion or acidic radicals:

NameSymbolCharge
AcetateCH3COO-1
FormateHCOO-1
Bicarbonate or Hydrogen carbonateHCO3-1
BisulphateHSO4-1
BisulphiteHSO3-1
BisulphideHS-1
FluorideF-1
ChlorideCl-1
BromideBr-1
IodideI-1
HypochloriteClO-1
HypobromiteBrO-1
HypoioditeIO-1
ChloriteClO2-1
BromiteBrO2-1
IoditeIO2-1
ChlorateClO3-1
BromateBrO3-1
IodateIO3-1
PerchlorateClO4-1
PerbromateBrO4-1
PeriodateIO4-1
NitriteNO2-1
NitrateNO3-1
HypophosphiteH2PO2-1
BiphosphateH2PO4-1
CyanideCN-1
CyanateCNO-1
ThiocyanateSCN-1
PermanganateMnO4-1
HydrideH-1
HydroxideOH-1
SuperoxideO2-1
Hydrogen peroxideHO2-1
CarbonateCO32--2
ChromateCrO42--2
DichromateCr2O72--2
ManganateMnO42--2
SulphideS2--2
SulphiteSO32--2
ThiosulphateS2O32--2
SulphateSO42--2
OxideO2--2
PeroxideO22--2
StanniteSnO22--2
StannateSnO32--2
SilicateSiO32--2
OxalateC2O42--2
MolybdateMoO42--2
PlumbitePbO22--2
PlumbatePbO32--2
ZincateZnO22--2
AluminateAlO33--3
ArseniteAsO33--3
ArsenateAsO43--3
BorideB3--3
BorateBO33--3
NitrideN3--3
PhosphideP3--3
PhosphitePO33--3
PhosphatePO43--3
Ferricyanide[Fe(CN)6]3--3
Ferrocyanide[Fe(CN)6]4--4
CarbideC4--4
  • Relative atomic mass:
  • Relative molecular mass:
  • % composition of an element:
  • Empirical formula: The simplest formula possible for any compound in which atoms of the constituent elements are in a simple whole-number ratio.
  • Molecular formula: The formula that shows the exact number of atoms of each of the constituent elements present in a molecule of any compound.

Practice Set-1

  • Find the empirical formula, molecular weight and empirical weight of the following-
    1. Hg2(NO3)2
    2. Na2S2O3
    3. NH4NO2
    4. (NH4)3PO4
    5. H2S2O7
    6. Fe2O3. 3H2O
    7. C2H2Cl4
    8. C6H12O6
    9. C2H6
    10. C2H4Br2                                                                            [5]

[Hg= 200, N=14,O=16,Na=23,S=32,H=1,P=31,Fe=56,Cl=35.5,C=12,Br=80]

  • Write the formula of the following:
    1. Ammonium sulphate
    2. Aluminium phosphate
    3. Calcium borate
    4. Zinc nitride
    5. Ferric sulphate
    6. Sodium Sulphite
    7. Magnesium bisulphide
    8. Ferrous hydroxide
    9. Cupric manganate
    10. Ammonium dichromate                                      [5]
  • Write the name of the following:
    1. NaHSO4
    2. K2ZnO2
    3. Na2PbO2
    4. (NH4)3PO4
    5. Na2S2O3
    6. Ca(MnO4)2
    7. AlN
    8. CaF
    9. Fe(C2O4)
    10. (CH3COO)Cu                                                                   [5]
  • Sulfate of an element M is MSO4. Find the formula of its-
    1. Hydroxide
    2. Permanganate
    3. Oxalate
    4. Ferrocyanide
    5. Nitrite
    6. Acetate
    7. Perchlorate
    8. Bromide
    9. Oxide
    10. Nitride                                                                       [5]
  • Balance the following:
    1. MnO2 + HCl → MnCl2 + Cl2+ H2O
    2. Na2S2O3 + HCl →NaCl + H2O + SO2 + S
    3. NH4Cl  + Ca(OH)2 → CaCl2 + H2O + NH3
    4. NH3 + P2O5 + 3H2O → (NH4)3PO4
    5. Mg3N2 + H2O → Mg(OH)2 + NH3
    6. NH3 + O2 → N2 + H2O
    7. NH3  + CuO → Cu + H2O + N2
    8. NH3 + Cl2 → N2 + NH4Cl
    9. NH3 + Cl2 → HCl + NCl3
    10. HNO3 → H2O + NO2 + O2
    11. C + HNO3 → CO2 + H2O + NO2
    12. S + HNO3 → H2SO4 + H2O + NO2
    13. Cu +HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + H2O + NO
    14. Cu + HNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + H2O + NO2
    15. Zn(NO3)2 → ZnO + NO2 + O2
    16. S + H2SO4 → H2O + SO2
    17. Cu + H2SO4 → CuSO4 + H2O + SO2
    18. FeSO4 + H2SO4 + HNO3 → Fe2(SO4)3 + H2O + NO
    19. P2O5 + HCl → POCl3 + HPO3
    20. HNO3 + HCl → NOCl + H2O +[Cl]                                    [10]

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